911-we_shall_never_forget-memorial
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Abstract Forest fires are generally consciously or unconsciously the work of man for various reasons. Fires generated by voltaic arc between power lines and the underlying trees do not occur often. These few cases may be only demonstrated by analyzing around the site where the arc may have been generated. Material such as leaves, bark and soil can be analyzed to find the metallic residues from the fused cables. The electrical cables usually composed of aluminum or copper alloys, when involved in an electric arc may spray fused micro-drops of metals, increasing the natural level of such elements. In two cases, the Al and Cu concentrations were increased by between 2.56 to 13.9 times the background levels. Electron microscopy of leaf surfaces has identified some profound alterations produced by the intense heat of the electrical discharge.

Abstract

Forest fires are generally consciously or unconsciously the work of man for various reasons. Fires generated byvoltaic arc between power lines and the underlying trees do not occur often. These few cases may be only demonstratedby analyzing around the site where the arc may have been generated. Material such as leaves, bark and soil can beanalyzed to find the metallic residues from the fused cables. The electrical cables usually composed of aluminum orcopper alloys, when involved in an electric arc may spray fused micro-drops of metals, increasing the natural levelof such elements. In two cases, the Al and Cu concentrations were increased by between 2.56 to 13.9 times thebackground levels. Electron microscopy of leaf surfaces has identified some profound alterations produced by theintense heat of the electrical discharge.

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In 2009-2013, U.S. fire departments responded to an estimated average of 56,000 structure fires per year in homes that involved heating equipment. These fires resulted in annual losses of 470 civilian deaths, 1,490 civilian injuries, and $1.0 billion in direct property damage. These homes included one- and two-family homes (including manufactured homes) and apartments (including townhouses and other multi-family dwellings). Space heaters are the type of equipment most often involved in home heating equipment fires, figuring in two of every five fires (40%). The fires involving space heaters accounted for 84% of the civilian deaths and 75% of civilian injuries in home fires caused by heating equipment, as well as over half (52%) of direct property damage. Another one-third (32%) of fires involved a fireplace or chimney, but these fires accounted for a much smaller share of civilian fatalities (5%) and civilian injuries (6%). Central heat and water heaters were responsible for 12% and 10% of home fires caused by heating equipment, respectively.

Abstract

In 2009-2013, U.S. fire departments responded to an estimated average of 56,000 structure fires per year in homes that involved heating equipment. These fires resulted in annual losses of 470 civilian deaths, 1,490 civilian injuries, and $1.0 billion in direct property damage. These homes included one- and two-family homes (including manufactured homes) and apartments (including townhouses and other multi-family dwellings).Space heaters are the type of equipment most often involved in home heating equipment fires, figuring in two of every five fires (40%). The fires involving space heaters accounted for 84% of the civilian deaths and 75% of civilian injuries in home fires caused by heating equipment, as well as over half (52%) of direct property damage. Another one-third (32%) of fires involved a fireplace or chimney, but these fires accounted for a much smaller share of civilian fatalities (5%) and civilian injuries (6%). Central heat and water heaters were responsible for 12% and 10% of home fires caused by heating equipment, respectively.

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From Out of the Abyss...

This week’s article from the past is titled Incendiary Fires Can Be Spotted and was written by Benjamin Horton, CPCU, who was President of the National Adjuster Traing School in Louisville, Kentucky..  It is taken from the Decembe 1968 Vol. XVI No.5 issue.

Incendiary Fires Can Be Spotted 

In the new issue of NFPA Journal®, President Jim Shannon said the Association will focus on the leading causes of home fires, including cooking. "We also need to continue to push hard for home fire sprinklers. That's still a large priority for NFPA, and we plan to work very aggressively in 2014 on our residential sprinkler initiative," he said.

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What is Ethics?  There are many famous people throughout history who have commented on this topic.

~~“The most important persuasion tool you have in your entire arsenal is integrity.”  ~Zig Ziglar

 ~~“Educating the mind without educating the heart is no education at all.”  ~Aristotle

 ~~“Education without values, as useful as it is, seems rather to make man a more clever devil.”  ~C.S. Lewis  

Submitted by Larry Luckham San Rafael Fire Department

One evening around 6:15 PM a few months ago I received a page to a reported structure fire at an address I knew to be a hotel.  I responded and arrived several minutes after the first-in engine company had reported on scene.  Enroute I understood from radio traffic that the fire was extinguished by the building sprinkler system, and a second crew was securing the sprinkler system to shut off the water.

As I entered the building I was directed by a firefighter to the second floor elevator lobby where a crew was busy with dewatering. The Captain showed me where the fire had started, which was in a trash container closet just off the elevator lobby. The closet itself was bare except for two 40 gallon plastic trash cans with black plastic liners. There was no sign that there had been any fire at all. The white enamel walls were clean, without even smoke deposits.

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Analysis of Metals and Surface Modification of Leaves for the Evaluation of Forest Fires Started by Electrical Discharge

Abstract
Forest fires are generally consciously or unconsciously the work of man for various reasons. Fires generated by
voltaic arc between power lines and the underlying trees do not occur often. These few cases may be only demonstrated
by analyzing around the site where the arc may have been generated. Material such as leaves, bark and soil can be
analyzed to find the metallic residues from the fused cables. The electrical cables usually composed of aluminum or
copper alloys, when involved in an electric arc may spray fused micro-drops of metals, increasing the natural level
of such elements. In two cases, the Al and Cu concentrations were increased by between 2.56 to 13.9 times the
background levels. Electron microscopy of leaf surfaces has identified some profound alterations produced by the
intense heat of the electrical discharge.

Abstract

Forest fires are generally consciously or unconsciously the work of man for various reasons. Fires generated byvoltaic arc between power lines and the underlying trees do not occur often. These few cases may be only demonstratedby analyzing around the site where the arc may have been generated. Material such as leaves, bark and soil can beanalyzed to find the metallic residues from the fused cables. The electrical cables usually composed of aluminum orcopper alloys, when involved in an electric arc may spray fused micro-drops of metals, increasing the natural levelof such elements. In two cases, the Al and Cu concentrations were increased by between 2.56 to 13.9 times thebackground levels. Electron microscopy of leaf surfaces has identified some profound alterations produced by theintense heat of the electrical discharge.

Read more... 

Home Fires Involving Heating Equipment

In 2009-2013, U.S. fire departments responded to an estimated average of 56,000 structure fires per year in homes that involved heating equipment. These fires resulted in annual losses of 470 civilian deaths, 1,490 civilian injuries, and $1.0 billion in direct property damage. These homes included one- and two-family homes (including manufactured homes) and apartments (including townhouses and other multi-family dwellings).
Space heaters are the type of equipment most often involved in home heating equipment fires, figuring in two of every five fires (40%). The fires involving space heaters accounted for 84% of the civilian deaths and 75% of civilian injuries in home fires caused by heating equipment, as well as over half (52%) of direct property damage. Another one-third (32%) of fires involved a fireplace or chimney, but these fires accounted for a much smaller share of civilian fatalities (5%) and civilian injuries (6%). Central heat and water heaters were responsible for 12% and 10% of home fires caused by heating equipment, respectively.

Abstract

In 2009-2013, U.S. fire departments responded to an estimated average of 56,000 structure fires per year in homes that involved heating equipment. These fires resulted in annual losses of 470 civilian deaths, 1,490 civilian injuries, and $1.0 billion in direct property damage. These homes included one- and two-family homes (including manufactured homes) and apartments (including townhouses and other multi-family dwellings).Space heaters are the type of equipment most often involved in home heating equipment fires, figuring in two of every five fires (40%). The fires involving space heaters accounted for 84% of the civilian deaths and 75% of civilian injuries in home fires caused by heating equipment, as well as over half (52%) of direct property damage. Another one-third (32%) of fires involved a fireplace or chimney, but these fires accounted for a much smaller share of civilian fatalities (5%) and civilian injuries (6%). Central heat and water heaters were responsible for 12% and 10% of home fires caused by heating equipment, respectively.

Read more... 

Is It Ethical?

 

What is Ethics?  There are many famous people throughout history who have commented on this topic.

~~“The most important persuasion tool you have in your entire arsenal is integrity.”  ~Zig Ziglar

 ~~“Educating the mind without educating the heart is no education at all.”  ~Aristotle

 ~~“Education without values, as useful as it is, seems rather to make man a more clever devil.”  ~C.S. Lewis  

Read more...

Low Voltage Ignition Fire

Submitted by Larry Luckham
San Rafael Fire Department

One evening around 6:15 PM a few months ago I received a page to a reported structure fire at an address I knew to be a hotel.  I responded and arrived several minutes after the first-in engine company had reported on scene.  Enroute I understood from radio traffic that the fire was extinguished by the building sprinkler system, and a second crew was securing the sprinkler system to shut off the water.

As I entered the building I was directed by a firefighter to the second floor elevator lobby where a crew was busy with dewatering. The Captain showed me where the fire had started, which was in a trash container closet just off the elevator lobby. The closet itself was bare except for two 40 gallon plastic trash cans with black plastic liners. There was no sign that there had been any fire at all. The white enamel walls were clean, without even smoke deposits.

Read more...

Experimental Study of the Effects of Fuel Type, Fuel Distribution, and Vent Size on Full-Scale Underventilated Compartment Fires in an ISO 9705 Room

INTRODUCTION
This report describes new full-scale compartment fire experiments, which include local
measurements of temperature, heat flux and species composition, and global measurements of
heat release rate and mass burning rate. The measurements are unique to the compartment fire
literature. By design, the experiments provided a comprehensive and quantitative assessment of
major and minor carbonaceous gaseous species and soot at two locations in the upper layer of
fire in a full scale ISO 9705 room [1].
Fire protection engineers, fire researchers, regulatory authorities, fire service and law
enforcement personnel use fire models (such as the NIST Fire Dynamics Simulator, FDS[2]) for
design and analysis of fire safety features in buildings and for post-fire reconstruction and
forensic applications. Fire field models have historically showed limited ability to accurately
and reliably predict the thermal conditions and chemical species in underventilated compartment
fires. Formal validation efforts have shown that for well ventilated compartment fires, with the
exception perhaps of soot, field models do quite well in predicting temperature and species when
experimental uncertainty is accounted for. Inaccurate predictions of incomplete burning and soot
levels impact calculations of radiative heat transfer, burning rates, and estimates of human
tenability. High-quality (relatively low, quantified uncertainty) measurements of fire gas
species, temperature, and soot from the interior of underventilated compartment fires are needed
to guide the development and validation of improved fire field models.

Introduction

This report describes new full-scale compartment fire experiments, which include localmeasurements of temperature, heat flux and species composition, and global measurements ofheat release rate and mass burning rate. The measurements are unique to the compartment fireliterature. By design, the experiments provided a comprehensive and quantitative assessment ofmajor and minor carbonaceous gaseous species and soot at two locations in the upper layer offire in a full scale ISO 9705 room [1].

Fire protection engineers, fire researchers, regulatory authorities, fire service and lawenforcement personnel use fire models (such as the NIST Fire Dynamics Simulator, FDS[2]) fordesign and analysis of fire safety features in buildings and for post-fire reconstruction andforensic applications. Fire field models have historically showed limited ability to accuratelyand reliably predict the thermal conditions and chemical species in underventilated compartmentfires. Formal validation efforts have shown that for well ventilated compartment fires, with theexception perhaps of soot, field models do quite well in predicting temperature and species whenexperimental uncertainty is accounted for. Inaccurate predictions of incomplete burning and sootlevels impact calculations of radiative heat transfer, burning rates, and estimates of humantenability. High-quality (relatively low, quantified uncertainty) measurements of fire gasspecies, temperature, and soot from the interior of underventilated compartment fires are neededto guide the development and validation of improved fire field models.

Read more... 

More Articles...

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