Forest fires are generally consciously or unconsciously the work of man for various reasons. Fires generated byvoltaic arc between power lines and the underlying trees do not occur often. These few cases may be only demonstratedby analyzing around the site where the arc may have been generated. Material such as leaves, bark and soil can beanalyzed to find the metallic residues from the fused cables. The electrical cables usually composed of aluminum orcopper alloys, when involved in an electric arc may spray fused micro-drops of metals, increasing the natural levelof such elements. In two cases, the Al and Cu concentrations were increased by between 2.56 to 13.9 times thebackground levels. Electron microscopy of leaf surfaces has identified some profound alterations produced by theintense heat of the electrical discharge.
In 2009-2013, U.S. fire departments responded to an estimated average of 56,000 structure fires per year in homes that involved heating equipment. These fires resulted in annual losses of 470 civilian deaths, 1,490 civilian injuries, and $1.0 billion in direct property damage. These homes included one- and two-family homes (including manufactured homes) and apartments (including townhouses and other multi-family dwellings).Space heaters are the type of equipment most often involved in home heating equipment fires, figuring in two of every five fires (40%). The fires involving space heaters accounted for 84% of the civilian deaths and 75% of civilian injuries in home fires caused by heating equipment, as well as over half (52%) of direct property damage. Another one-third (32%) of fires involved a fireplace or chimney, but these fires accounted for a much smaller share of civilian fatalities (5%) and civilian injuries (6%). Central heat and water heaters were responsible for 12% and 10% of home fires caused by heating equipment, respectively.
By Charles C. Roberts, Jr., Ph. D., P.E.
Automobile engine coolant related fires may result from engine coolant leakage,an increase in the concentration of the glycol in the water/glycol mixture, thenature of the vapor/particle distribution, and contact with an ignition source inthe engine compartment. Ethylene glycol, a common coolant, is a flammableliquid with an ignition temperature near 800F. In recent years, propylene glycolis being used because of environmental reasons. Propylene glycol is also aflammable liquid with an ignition temperature near 700F. In an automotiveapplication, the glycol is mixed with water at about a 50/50 ratio. Ignition of thisconcentration of coolant is difficult because of the water. When released at hightemperatures into the atmosphere where the water evaporates, the glycolvapor/liquid droplets can reach the state of an ignitable mixture. Typical ignitionsources in the engine compartment include hot surfaces (exhaust manifold,exhaust system) and electrical components (relays, distributor, spark plug wires).Automobile accidents, resulting in hot vapor expulsion from the coolant system,are also known to cause fires.
In this paper, we review the research results about the identification of the electrical fire trace evidence and the fire reason recognition. We point out the existing problems and put forward the corresponding suggestions to promote the development of the cause of the fire investigation and make it better to serve for the work of fire investigation.
From Out of the Abyss...
This week’s article from the past is titled Incendiary Fires Can Be Spotted and was written by Benjamin Horton, CPCU, who was President of the National Adjuster Traing School in Louisville, Kentucky.. It is taken from the Decembe 1968 Vol. XVI No.5 issue.
Incendiary Fires Can Be Spotted
In the new issue of NFPA Journal®, President Jim Shannon said the Association will focus on the leading causes of home fires, including cooking. "We also need to continue to push hard for home fire sprinklers. That's still a large priority for NFPA, and we plan to work very aggressively in 2014 on our residential sprinkler initiative," he said.
Introduced by Representative Peter T. King
January 15, 2009
The following is from the Library of Congress - Thomas
National Bombing Prevention Act of 2009 - Amends the Homeland Security Act of 2002 to direct the Secretary of Homeland Security to establish an Office for Bombing Prevention within the Department of Homeland Security's (DHS) Protective Security Coordination Division of the Office of Infrastructure Protection. Assigns the Office primary responsibility for enhancing the ability and coordinating the efforts of the nation to deter, detect, prevent, protect against, and respond to terrorist explosive attacks in the United States.
Directs the Secretary to partner with other federal, state, local, and tribal agencies, nonprofit organizations, universities, and the private sector to: (1) develop a pilot program that includes a domestic breeding program for explosives detection canines; (2) increase the number of capability assessments of explosives detection canine units; (3) continue development of a scientifically-based training curriculum to enhance consensus-based national training and certification standards to provide for the effective use of explosives detection canines; and (4) continue engagement in explosives detection canine research and development activities through partnerships with the Science and Technology Directorate and the Technical Support Working Group.
Directs the Secretary to develop and periodically update a national strategy to prevent and prepare for terrorist explosive attacks in the United States.
Directs the Secretary, acting through the Under Secretary for Science and Technology, to: (1) ensure coordination and information sharing regarding nonmilitary research, development, testing, and evaluation activities relating to the detection and prevention of, protection against, and response to terrorist attacks in the United States using explosives or improvised explosive devices and the development of tools and technologies necessary to neutralize and disable explosive devices; (2) coordinate with relevant federal department heads to ensure that military policies, procedures, activities, tools, and technologies to prevent and respond to terrorist attacks are adapted to nonmilitary uses; (3) establish a technology transfer program to facilitate the identification, modification, and commercialization of technology and equipment for use by agencies, emergency response providers, and the private sector against such attacks; and (4) establish a working group to advise and assist in the identification of military technologies developed by the Department of Defense (DOD) or the private sector to protect against and respond to explosive attacks.
Amends the Implementing Recommendations of the 9/11 Commission Act of 2007 to direct the Comptroller General to utilize explosives detection canine teams of the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) and other DHS agencies to strengthen security and capacity.
Directs the Secretary to submit a report to specified congressional committees on the administration of canine procurement activities by DHS to deter, prevent, detect, and protect against terrorist explosive attacks in the United States that includes consideration of the feasibility of reducing the price paid for the procurement of untrained canines."
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