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Vytenis Babrauskas, Ph.D

Abstract

Arc mapping was first introduced in the 2001 edition of NFPA 921 and was subsequently expanded so that in the recent editions it constitutes one of the four main methods for determining the origin of a fire. Careful consideration of engineering principles and large-scale experimental studies on the subject indicates that the relevance and prominence of arc mapping as a leading indicator of fire origin is greatly overstated. The technique is valid and applicable only in some very limited scenarios. Yet it has seen very extensive use in recent years by investigators preparing fire reports. In many cases, such attempted use of arc mapping is based on incorrect and invalid hypotheses, which are often implicitly assumed to be true instead of being explicitly stated. The following are myths: (i) An abundance of arc beads at a given locale means that fire originated in that area, while a paucity of arc beads indicates that it did not. (ii) When multiple arcs are present on a circuit, the direction of arcing will necessarily proceed upstream towards the power source. (iii) If an appliance is the victim of a fire, internal arcing will be primarily near the exterior of the unit, while arcing deep inside indicates a fire origin at that place. NFPA is urged to revise NFPA 921 to eliminate arc mapping as one of the four main methods for establishing fire origin, and to subsume it under the more general category of “fire patterns.” In addition, it is important that NFPA 921 reduce the implied general utility of the method and provide more explicit information on its interpretation and its limitations and on the circumstances under which it may be a valid method for assisting in the determination of the fire origin.

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Vytenis Babrauskas, Ph.D.

Abstract

Short circuits to building wiring can happen due to electrical mishaps, or as a result of fire impinging on the wiring. In either case, this may cause arcing.  It is sometimes erroneously assumed that this must produce signs of ‘electrical activity,’ which is a term often used by fire investigators to mean discernable arc marks or arc beads.  While such artifacts may indeed be produced, it is shown that it does not necessarily happen in every case.  Shorting and arcing (whether due to fire or due to an accident) may occur without leaving physical evidence that is discernable as an arc bead.  Ejecta also may, but do not have to be produced.  Some variables have been identified which can influence the size of arc beads, when arc beads are produced.  But stochastic aspects dominate, and no predictive correlations can be expected.  It is also shown that there are no prediction methods available to establish if an arc locale will result in severing or welding together of conductors.

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From Out of the Abyss...

This week’s article from the past is titled Incendiary Fires Can Be Spotted and was written by Benjamin Horton, CPCU, who was President of the National Adjuster Traing School in Louisville, Kentucky..  It is taken from the Decembe 1968 Vol. XVI No.5 issue.

Incendiary Fires Can Be Spotted 

In the new issue of NFPA Journal®, President Jim Shannon said the Association will focus on the leading causes of home fires, including cooking. "We also need to continue to push hard for home fire sprinklers. That's still a large priority for NFPA, and we plan to work very aggressively in 2014 on our residential sprinkler initiative," he said.

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From: The Desk of Scotty Baker

To: The CCAI Training Committee

Thank You

Over the last several training seminars, even as an old hand, I have learned new information concerning fires and how they do what they do.

 

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Employment Opportunities

Anyone wanting to place an ad offering employment opportunites should call the CCAI Office at 909 865-5004.

 


advancedanalysis_logoAdvanced Analysis, Inc. is seeking part time Certified Fire Investigators in the Bay area (San Francisco and San Jose). Interested parties should send resumes to This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it or call 951-674-4140.

 

reliant_logoReliant Investigations in Rancho Cucamonga, CA is recruiting for a qualified, self-motivated candidate to fill a Fire Investigator vacancy. The individual appointed to this position must be experienced, able to conduct detailed investigations, analyze findings, and establish and maintain cooperative relations with others.  These individuals must be qualified to conduct fire investigations involving, but not limited to, structure (residential), commercial, motor homes, and vehicles.

Reliant Investigations currently provides healthcare benefits, vehicles, equipment, and educational training.

Minimum Qualifications:

License Required: Possession of a valid California Motor Vehicle Driver’s License. 

Education: Possession of a high school diploma or G.E.D. equivalency, all required courses in fire investigation, CCAI-CFI and/or IAAI-CFI Certification.

Send all resumes and inquiries to This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

 



 

The Contra Costa County Fire Protection District in Martinez, CA is recruiting for a qualified candidate to fill the Fire Investigator vacancy. The individual appointed to this position must be able to conduct detailed investigations, analyze findings, and establish and maintain cooperative relations with others.  Additionally, Fire Investigators must be available for off-duty arson investigation recall. Fire Investigators may conduct fire prevention duties as required when not fully occupied with investigation duties. This may include inspections, public education, exterior hazard abatement or other related prevention duties.

All applicants are to apply on-line at www.cccounty.us/hr

 

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