Factors controlling the spread of smoldering combustion on solid wood (red oak, white pine) were examined in a configuration designed to enable self-sustained smolder. The sample was in the form of a U-shaped channel 74 em long with 6.4 em thick walls. A controlled flow of air was confined to the interior of the channel. Smoldering was initiated on the interior surface either of the upstream end of this channel (yielding forward smolder propagation), the downstream end (reverse smolder) or mid-length (coupled forward/reverse smolder). In separate tests the air flow velocity (referred to the initial cross section of the channel) was varied from about 9 to 22 em/sec. At the low end of this range, the smoldering process was prone to extinction; at the high end it was increasingly likely to transition into flaming combustion. A simple energy balance model indicates a central role of radiative transfer in sustaining the smolder process.
This recall involves NVIDIA SHIELD tablet computers with 8-inch touch screens. Model numbers P1761, P1761W and P1761WX and serial numbers 0410215901781 through 0425214604018 are included in this recall. NVIDIA and the model and serial numbers are etched on the left side edge of the tablets. The SHIELD logo is on the back of the tablets.
Details are at CPSC
This recall involves model year 2014 Arctic Cat Prowler 500 HDX and model year 2015 Prowler 500 HDX models. The recalled vehicles include vehicle identification numbers (VIN) from 303194 through 305166. The VIN number is located on the rear frame tube under the rear of the box. The vehicles are green, red, vibrant red metallic, or emerald green metallic. “Arctic Cat” is printed on each side of the hood. Also 500 is printed on each side on the front fenders, HDX on each side of the rear cargo box, and “Arctic Cat” on the cargo box tail gate.
Kim Warner got the scare of her life behind the wheel of her Jeep Wrangler. "I saw a flash under the hood," she remembers. She says she was driving at a low speed when her brakes went out and the shifter jammed. "I had both feet on the brake and my tires were spinning. I noticed flames coming out the passenger side," she says.
Her boyfriend who was nearby ran, jumped in, and pulled her out of the SUV before it got worse. "As I pulled her out that is when the flames came thru the dash," he said.
Chrysler sent an inspector, but the automaker said in a statement: "The cause of the fire was deemed inconclusive by the investigator."
In the new issue of NFPA Journal®, President Jim Shannon said the Association will focus on the leading causes of home fires, including cooking. "We also need to continue to push hard for home fire sprinklers. That's still a large priority for NFPA, and we plan to work very aggressively in 2014 on our residential sprinkler initiative," he said.
This recall involves battery-operated night lights with an AC adapter included. The night light collection includes a pink hedgehog, a blue bird, a yellow rocket, an orange dino egg, a white soccer ball and a green shark. The model numbers are printed on the bottom side of the night lights.
Trivia Questions of the Month
The trivia questions are not only fun but informative. Who doesn't like learning something new, right?
Trivia question for August
The first propulsion means for fire pumps, whether they were hand or steamed powered, consisted of human beings pulling the pump. Fire crews from the early 1900s were carried around by people, the apparatus had little room for personnel, they moved slowly and when they arrived at the scene, the firefighters were often too tired to do anything. Luckily, in most cases, the fires died out before they even arrived, so there was little left for them to do.
Towards mid-1800s, and the age of steam, the introduction of the paid firefighters made room for horses to be largely put to use and pull the fire pumps. This improved the response time of the fire brigades, but still didn't solve the firefighter transport issue. People literally ran to the fires and, despite the fact that the pump was already there; they had some resting to do before getting to it. The introduction of running boards and back steps, tail boards, later solved this problem as well.
The continuing development in fire-fighting technologies and equipment made life a lot harder for the horses. The increase in weight of the fire engine slowly turned the horses as ineffective as the people were before them. Often, after half a mile or so, the travel speed would decrease dramatically. This called for a new means of propelling the engines.
Enter the self-propelled fire equipment. The first self-propelled, steam powered fire engine in the US came to be in 1841 and it was built in New York. Strangely enough, it didn't catch on. Firefighters considered such a propulsion solution dangerous and unreliable. It took decades before the steam powered fire engines really caught on.
However, the reign of the steam didn't last long. Despite the fact that steam powered fire engines were still in use, here and there, up until the 1920’s, motorized fire trucks became more and more common by the early 1900’s. Horse-drawn or steam powered engines started being turned into motorized fire engines. By 1913, Ahrens-Fox Manufacturing Company from Cincinnati was the leading company when it came to the conversion. From 1911, Mack Trucks began producing fire trucks, slowly becoming the most famous manufacturer in this field.
Many take the motorized fire equipment we use today for granted. Yes it is big and shiny and very impressive, BUT, when was the first motorized fire engine used and where was it used? What was the first fire department in California to become motorized?
I could ask that you trust to memory, but I know many will go to their computer for help. Good luck.
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