This recall involves power cords supplied with certain Bosch, Gaggenau, Kenmore Elite and Thermador brand dishwashers that were manufactured from January 2008 through December 2013. Model and serial numbers are located on the top side of the dishwashers’ inner door panels.
See the full details at CPSC
This recall involves Edge, Edge XLT and Wrangler lawn mowers. The red riding lawn mowers have a gray seat with a foam cushion, black arm rests and either black or gray joystick or twin lever steering. “Country Clipper” and the model name appear in black letters on the front under the seat and on the sides of the lawn mower. Recalled Country Clipper model numbers are as follows. The model number is located on a silver metal plate on the mower’s side rail.
Many times, a fire investigator will conclude that a device was electrically energized at the time of a fire based on the presence of a bead on a wire. If an energized device is present in the area of origin, it is likely that it will be considered as a potential cause of a fire. Some training guides put forth that beads can only be formed from arcing on wires that were electrically energized when they were exposed to a fire or caused a fire. Therefore, the presence or absence of a bead on a wire can have a strong influence on the direction of a fire investigation. Hence, it is important to have a clear understanding of the various electrical and thermal conditions which can produce beads on electrical wires.
The main objective of this research was to determine, experimentally, if distinguishing characteristics exist between energized and non-energized wires subjected to various types of fire exposures. The large majority of research published in the literature has not tested energized and non-energized wires under the same conditions. A total of more than 190 wires were tested under various fire conditions. Wire types included 12-gauge and 14-gauge solid conductors and 16-gauge and 18-gauge stranded conductors. The tests were conducted using a bench-scale, premixed flame impingement apparatus, a bench-scale 125 kW/m2 radiant tunnel apparatus, a 2/5-scale flashover compartment, and a full-scale flashover compartment. The use of various types of exposure conditions ensured that the characteristics on the wires (or lack thereof) were not caused by one specific type of thermal insult. Wires were tested in both an energized and non-energized state. Energized wires were tested under “load” and “no load” conditions. Under load conditions, the energized wires were plugged into a 110-120 volt power source with 9 to 13 amps of current. Under “no load” conditions, the wires were plugged into the power supply, but no current was flowing in the circuit.
Based on preliminary studies conducted by the authors, it was hypothesized that characteristic “arc-beads” could be formed on non-energized wires as well as energized wires. Additionally, it was hypothesized that the formation of a bead on a wire was not a function of its “energized state”, but a function of its “thermal state”. This hypothesis is based on the laws of physics, which states that liquids tend to form spherical structures due to cohesive surface forces. These hypotheses are in opposition of the current state-of-the-art in the field, which states that beads can only be formed on energized wires. Another review of all the test samples is still underway; however, these hypotheses are supported by the current research findings and sample analyses results. No trends or distinguishing visual or microscopic characteristics between energized and non-energized wires have been found in the samples reviewed to-date. Whether a wire was energized with load, energized without load, or non-energized had no significant effect on the visual or microscopic characteristics of the wire. Round copper globules with clear lines of demarcation, traditionally defined as “beads”, were produced on both energized and non-energized wires. Some energized wires that did arc failed to produce round copper globules with clear lines of demarcation, while some non-energized wires that did not arc did produce these characteristic beads. Under a microscope, beads from some of the energized wires were porous and contained a large quantity of internal void spaces, while other beads contained no void spaces. This same trend was true for non-energized wires. A study of selected samples under SEM/EDS also showed no trends in grain structure or chemical compositions.
A detailed metallurgical study of internal grain structures of the beads was also performed. The inner grain structures of the beads were studied for structure sizes, porosity, and general changes. None of the physical aspects of the beads studied showed any definitive, distinguishing traits between energized and non-energized wires. There was one trait, an internal line of demarcation, which was found on forty percent (40%) of the energized beads but only found in one of the non-energized beads. The internal line of demarcation was marked by the abrupt change of the grain size between the bead and the adjoining wire. Of the beads that showed this characteristic, half of the samples had larger grain structures on the bead when compared to the wire, and the other half revealed the opposite condition. Since one of the non-energized beads did have an internal line of demarcation, it is not possible to conclude with 100% certainty that the presence of an internal line of demarcation indicates that a wire was energized at the time of bead formation. Additionally, since not all of the energized wires exhibited an internal line of demarcation, it is not possible to say that the absence of an internal line of demarcation indicates that a wire was non-energized.
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In the new issue of NFPA Journal®, President Jim Shannon said the Association will focus on the leading causes of home fires, including cooking. "We also need to continue to push hard for home fire sprinklers. That's still a large priority for NFPA, and we plan to work very aggressively in 2014 on our residential sprinkler initiative," he said.
Fire investigators with suppression experience recall that fear of getting called out of bed to return to a fire that had already been extinguished as the “Rekindle Nightmare!”
As fire investigators, we occasionally forget our roots and grumble about the extent of overhaul by the suppression crews as they “destroyed my fire patterns.” This is a description of an incident with the need for overhaul and a warning for investigators.
This recall involves Nestlé three and five gallon cold and hot water dispensers. The units are white and silver in color and measure about 38 inches tall by 13 inches wide. Water is dispensed from the large plastic water bottle on the top of the unit through the machine by pushing on the paddles below that are marked with blue for cold water and red for hot water. The Nestlé Waters North America logo is on the front of the units. Only the following model and serial numbers are included in this recall. The model and serial numbers are printed on a white sticker on the back of the units.
Details can be seen at CPSC.
Trivia Questions of the Month
The trivia questions are not only fun but informative. Who doesn't like learning something new, right?
Trivia question for August
The first propulsion means for fire pumps, whether they were hand or steamed powered, consisted of human beings pulling the pump. Fire crews from the early 1900s were carried around by people, the apparatus had little room for personnel, they moved slowly and when they arrived at the scene, the firefighters were often too tired to do anything. Luckily, in most cases, the fires died out before they even arrived, so there was little left for them to do.
Towards mid-1800s, and the age of steam, the introduction of the paid firefighters made room for horses to be largely put to use and pull the fire pumps. This improved the response time of the fire brigades, but still didn't solve the firefighter transport issue. People literally ran to the fires and, despite the fact that the pump was already there; they had some resting to do before getting to it. The introduction of running boards and back steps, tail boards, later solved this problem as well.
The continuing development in fire-fighting technologies and equipment made life a lot harder for the horses. The increase in weight of the fire engine slowly turned the horses as ineffective as the people were before them. Often, after half a mile or so, the travel speed would decrease dramatically. This called for a new means of propelling the engines.
Enter the self-propelled fire equipment. The first self-propelled, steam powered fire engine in the US came to be in 1841 and it was built in New York. Strangely enough, it didn't catch on. Firefighters considered such a propulsion solution dangerous and unreliable. It took decades before the steam powered fire engines really caught on.
However, the reign of the steam didn't last long. Despite the fact that steam powered fire engines were still in use, here and there, up until the 1920’s, motorized fire trucks became more and more common by the early 1900’s. Horse-drawn or steam powered engines started being turned into motorized fire engines. By 1913, Ahrens-Fox Manufacturing Company from Cincinnati was the leading company when it came to the conversion. From 1911, Mack Trucks began producing fire trucks, slowly becoming the most famous manufacturer in this field.
Many take the motorized fire equipment we use today for granted. Yes it is big and shiny and very impressive, BUT, when was the first motorized fire engine used and where was it used? What was the first fire department in California to become motorized?
I could ask that you trust to memory, but I know many will go to their computer for help. Good luck.
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