Authors: Christopher L. Mealy and Daniel T. Gottuk
Fires occurring within an enclosed space represent the majority of fire scenarios. Understanding the impact of this confinement on the burning dynamics of the fuels within is essential to accurately predicting fire development. Traditionally, heat release rate measurements are measured under open burning conditions. This data is often used to represent materials burning within an enclosure without fully understanding the impact the enclosure might have on the burning dynamics of the fuel. Depending on the geometry of the space and the ventilation conditions present, the enclosure may have a negative effect (i.e., reduce heat release), no effect, or have an enhancing effect on the burning rate of the fuels (i.e., increase heat release). The purpose of this research was to further develop the understanding of enclosure fire effects by conducting full-scale fire tests in both open and enclosed scenarios with both Class A and liquid fuels present. Identical fuel packages in the form of confined area liquid fuel fires (i.e., pan fires), unconfined liquid fuel fires (i.e., spill fires), and Class A fire scenarios were conducted in both the open and within an enclosure. Comparisons between the burning dynamics of the liquid and Class A fuels under these conditions were made. The results of this work provide insight into the varying effects that an enclosure can have on the burning dynamics of a fuel and identifies the impact of certain variables including fuel type, fuel location, and ventilation condition. It should be noted that a forensic research program was conducted in parallel with the testing described in this report and that a companion report was written describing the findings of this forensic work.
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Nissan, the second largest Japanese automobile manufacturer, has issued two separate recall orders for a total of around 768,000 vehicles from all over the world.
The recall orders will look to fix a fire hazard and a hood that could suddenly open while the vehicle is running, Nissan told deferral regulators.
The order for the fixing of the fire hazard will see Nissan recall 552,135 of its Rogue SUVs from all over the world, as there is a possibility of water or snow with salt that could be carried into the car by the shoes of the driver could possibly seep through the vehicle's carpet. The mixture may then cause a shortage in an electrical connection, leading to a possible fire.
This recall involves Ambient Weather radios. The weather radios are red and black and measure about 8 inches wide by 4 inches tall by 2 inches deep. “Ambient Weather,” “AM/FM/Weather Band Radio” and “NOAA Weather Radio” are printed in white lettering on the front of the radio. The radios have a black crank handle on the back, an antenna on the top, a single LED flashlight on the left side, a clip on the right side and a cable to charge a smart phone. Model number WR-334-U or WR-334A-U is printed in the owner’s manual. The AC power adapter is black and has a rounded back. Model number YHD0500500U is printed on a white sticker on the adapter.
See the full details at CPSC
This recall involves Trane and American Standard brand accessory heaters manufactured between November 2014 and March 2015 and installed in TAM7 and TAM8 air handlers as a primary or secondary heat source. Models included in the recall are BAYEVBC15BK1BAA (15 KW Electric Heater) with serial numbers 1447B2BP1X through 1512B2CDDX and Model BAYEVCC25BK1BAA (25 KW Electric Heater) with serial numbers 1503B2AP0X through 1513B2BHXX. Due to the electrical risk, only a certified HVAC repair person should verify the model and serial numbers on the nameplate on the inside of the air handler.
In the new issue of NFPA Journal®, President Jim Shannon said the Association will focus on the leading causes of home fires, including cooking. "We also need to continue to push hard for home fire sprinklers. That's still a large priority for NFPA, and we plan to work very aggressively in 2014 on our residential sprinkler initiative," he said.
NFPA 921, Guide for Fire and Explosion Investigations plays a fundamental role in fire and explosion investigations. A new edition of NFPA 921 is scheduled to be published in 2014. For years, this document has played a critical role in the training, education and job performance of fire and explosion investigators. It also serves as one of the primary references used by the National Fire Academy to support its fire/arson-related training and education programs. It is imperative that investigators understand the scope, purpose and application of this document, especially since it will be used to judge the quality and thoroughness of their investigations.
General Motors Co. will recall 370,000 full-size pickups for fire risks after eight reported fires. The automaker is urging owners not to leave their trucks unattended while idling.GM said Friday it will recall 2014 Chevrolet Silverados and GMC Sierras to reprogram software that could lead to overheating of exhaust components, potentially causing engine compartment fires. The 2014 Silverado is one of three finalists for North American Truck of the Year, which will be awarded Monday at the North American International Auto Show.
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