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Vytenis Babrauskas, Ph.D

Abstract

Arc mapping was first introduced in the 2001 edition of NFPA 921 and was subsequently expanded so that in the recent editions it constitutes one of the four main methods for determining the origin of a fire. Careful consideration of engineering principles and large-scale experimental studies on the subject indicates that the relevance and prominence of arc mapping as a leading indicator of fire origin is greatly overstated. The technique is valid and applicable only in some very limited scenarios. Yet it has seen very extensive use in recent years by investigators preparing fire reports. In many cases, such attempted use of arc mapping is based on incorrect and invalid hypotheses, which are often implicitly assumed to be true instead of being explicitly stated. The following are myths: (i) An abundance of arc beads at a given locale means that fire originated in that area, while a paucity of arc beads indicates that it did not. (ii) When multiple arcs are present on a circuit, the direction of arcing will necessarily proceed upstream towards the power source. (iii) If an appliance is the victim of a fire, internal arcing will be primarily near the exterior of the unit, while arcing deep inside indicates a fire origin at that place. NFPA is urged to revise NFPA 921 to eliminate arc mapping as one of the four main methods for establishing fire origin, and to subsume it under the more general category of “fire patterns.” In addition, it is important that NFPA 921 reduce the implied general utility of the method and provide more explicit information on its interpretation and its limitations and on the circumstances under which it may be a valid method for assisting in the determination of the fire origin.

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Vytenis Babrauskas, Ph.D.

Abstract

Short circuits to building wiring can happen due to electrical mishaps, or as a result of fire impinging on the wiring. In either case, this may cause arcing.  It is sometimes erroneously assumed that this must produce signs of ‘electrical activity,’ which is a term often used by fire investigators to mean discernable arc marks or arc beads.  While such artifacts may indeed be produced, it is shown that it does not necessarily happen in every case.  Shorting and arcing (whether due to fire or due to an accident) may occur without leaving physical evidence that is discernable as an arc bead.  Ejecta also may, but do not have to be produced.  Some variables have been identified which can influence the size of arc beads, when arc beads are produced.  But stochastic aspects dominate, and no predictive correlations can be expected.  It is also shown that there are no prediction methods available to establish if an arc locale will result in severing or welding together of conductors.

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From Out of the Abyss...

This week’s article from the past is titled Incendiary Fires Can Be Spotted and was written by Benjamin Horton, CPCU, who was President of the National Adjuster Traing School in Louisville, Kentucky..  It is taken from the Decembe 1968 Vol. XVI No.5 issue.

Incendiary Fires Can Be Spotted 

In the new issue of NFPA Journal®, President Jim Shannon said the Association will focus on the leading causes of home fires, including cooking. "We also need to continue to push hard for home fire sprinklers. That's still a large priority for NFPA, and we plan to work very aggressively in 2014 on our residential sprinkler initiative," he said.

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From: The Desk of Scotty Baker

To: The CCAI Training Committee

Thank You

Over the last several training seminars, even as an old hand, I have learned new information concerning fires and how they do what they do.

 

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Past Presidents
Past Presidents
1954    Carl F. Morrison
1955    Varian “Bud” Wadleigh
1956    Lee Robb
1957    Dwight T. Doolittle
1958    William E. Fox
1959    Edwin B. Hatcher
1960    David M. Buxton
1961    Joseph Moorman
1962    Melvin D. Wert
1963    Melvin D. Wert
1964    Raymond C. Bertolo
1965    Charles Cole
1966    Robert G. Bishop
1967    Richard C. Pfeiffer
1968    E.R. Sam Garza
1969    Robert Newsom
1970    Cyrillis W. Holmes
1971    William B. Foster
1972    Kennith M. Hall
1973    Richard D. Brown
1974    William J. Coulter
1975    Ronald P. Hall
1976    Jim Muldown
1977    Earl “Wes” Scarbrough
1978    Herb L. Johnson
1979    Richard Diltz
1980    Gary A. Glenn
1981    Frank Holbrook
1982    Ross Jones
1983    James T. Upton
1984    William “Nick” Concolino
1985    Richard Wiles
1986    Timothy G. Huff
1987    Russell L. Bush
1988    Hal Armstrong
1989    Dennis Wilson
1990    Kenneth A. Moore


1991    Thomas J. Fee
1992    Mark E. Johnson
1993    Doug Allen
1994    David Hillman
1995    John J. McMasters
1996    Jeanne Boger
1997    Wayne Tyson
1998    Wayne Tyson
1999    Peter J. Arnet
2000   Tom Kuczynski
2001    David Chovanec
2002    Wayne Tyson
2003    Joseph Konefal, Jr.
2004    Robert Eggleston
2005    William Kilpatrick
2006    Ricardo Price
2007    James Allen
2008    Loran Blasdell
2009    Tom Derby
2010    Bradley Hamil
2011    William Kilpatrick
2012    Vern Canon
2013    E.R. “Scotty” Baker
2014    Tom Pierce
2015     Eric Emmanuele
 


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