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This recall involves power cords supplied with certain Bosch, Gaggenau, Kenmore Elite and Thermador brand dishwashers that were manufactured from January 2008 through December 2013. Model and serial numbers are located on the top side of the dishwashers’ inner door panels.

See the full details at CPSC


This recall involves Edge, Edge XLT and Wrangler lawn mowers. The red riding lawn mowers have a gray seat with a foam cushion, black arm rests and either black or gray joystick or twin lever steering.  “Country Clipper” and the model name appear in black letters on the front under the seat and on the sides of the lawn mower. Recalled Country Clipper model numbers are as follows. The model number is located on a silver metal plate on the mower’s side rail.


See the full details at CPSC


Many times, a fire investigator will conclude that a device was electrically energized at the time of a fire based on the presence of a bead on a wire.  If an energized device is present in the area of origin, it is likely that it will be considered as a potential cause of a fire.  Some training guides put forth that beads can only be formed from arcing on wires that were electrically energized when they were exposed to a fire or caused a fire. Therefore, the presence or absence of a bead on a wire can have a strong influence on the direction of a fire investigation.  Hence, it is important to have a clear understanding of the various electrical and thermal conditions which can produce beads on electrical wires.

The main objective of this research was to determine, experimentally, if distinguishing characteristics exist between energized and non-energized wires subjected to various types of fire exposures.  The large majority of research published in the literature has not tested energized and non-energized wires under the same conditions.  A total of more than 190 wires were tested under various fire conditions.  Wire types included 12-gauge and 14-gauge solid conductors and 16-gauge and 18-gauge stranded conductors.  The tests were conducted using a bench-scale, premixed flame impingement apparatus, a bench-scale 125 kW/m2 radiant tunnel apparatus, a 2/5-scale flashover compartment, and a full-scale flashover compartment.  The use of various types of exposure conditions ensured that the characteristics on the wires (or lack thereof) were not caused by one specific type of thermal insult.  Wires were tested in both an energized and non-energized state.  Energized wires were tested under “load” and “no load” conditions.  Under load conditions, the energized wires were plugged into a 110-120 volt power source with 9 to 13 amps of current.  Under “no load” conditions, the wires were plugged into the power supply, but no current was flowing in the circuit.

Based on preliminary studies conducted by the authors, it was hypothesized that characteristic “arc-beads” could be formed on non-energized wires as well as energized wires.  Additionally, it was hypothesized that the formation of a bead on a wire was not a function of its “energized state”, but a function of its “thermal state”.  This hypothesis is based on the laws of physics, which states that liquids tend to form spherical structures due to cohesive surface forces.  These hypotheses are in opposition of the current state-of-the-art in the field, which states that beads can only be formed on energized wires.  Another review of all the test samples is still underway; however, these hypotheses are supported by the current research findings and sample analyses results.  No trends or distinguishing visual or microscopic characteristics between energized and non-energized wires have been found in the samples reviewed to-date.  Whether a wire was energized with load, energized without load, or non-energized had no significant effect on the visual or microscopic characteristics of the wire.  Round copper globules with clear lines of demarcation, traditionally defined as “beads”, were produced on both energized and non-energized wires.  Some energized wires that did arc failed to produce round copper globules with clear lines of demarcation, while some non-energized wires that did not arc did produce these characteristic beads.  Under a microscope, beads from some of the energized wires were porous and contained a large quantity of internal void spaces, while other beads contained no void spaces.  This same trend was true for non-energized wires.  A study of selected samples under SEM/EDS also showed no trends in grain structure or chemical compositions.

A detailed metallurgical study of internal grain structures of the beads was also performed.  The inner grain structures of the beads were studied for structure sizes, porosity, and general changes.  None of the physical aspects of the beads studied showed any definitive, distinguishing traits between energized and non-energized wires.  There was one trait, an internal line of demarcation, which was found on forty percent (40%) of the energized beads but only found in one of the non-energized beads.  The internal line of demarcation was marked by the abrupt change of the grain size between the bead and the adjoining wire.  Of the beads that showed this characteristic, half of the samples had larger grain structures on the bead when compared to the wire, and the other half revealed the opposite condition.  Since one of the non-energized beads did have an internal line of demarcation, it is not possible to conclude with 100% certainty that the presence of an internal line of demarcation indicates that a wire was energized at the time of bead formation.  Additionally, since not all of the energized wires exhibited an internal line of demarcation, it is not possible to say that the absence of an internal line of demarcation indicates that a wire was non-energized.

Click here for the  Full Report (This is a large file and may take a moment or two to open)

In the new issue of NFPA Journal®, President Jim Shannon said the Association will focus on the leading causes of home fires, including cooking. "We also need to continue to push hard for home fire sprinklers. That's still a large priority for NFPA, and we plan to work very aggressively in 2014 on our residential sprinkler initiative," he said.


by Dennis Field, Senior Fire Investigator
Fire Cause Analysis

Fire investigators with suppression experience recall that fear of getting called out of bed to return to a fire that had already been extinguished as the “Rekindle Nightmare!”

As fire investigators, we occasionally forget our roots and grumble about the extent of overhaul by the suppression crews as they “destroyed my fire patterns.”  This is a description of an incident with the need for overhaul and a warning for investigators.



This recall involves Nestlé three and five gallon cold and hot water dispensers. The units are white and silver in color and measure about 38 inches tall by 13 inches wide. Water is dispensed from the large plastic water bottle on the top of the unit through the machine by pushing on the paddles below that are marked with blue for cold water and red for hot water. The Nestlé Waters North America logo is on the front of the units. Only the following model and serial numbers are included in this recall. The model and serial numbers are printed on a white sticker on the back of the units.

Details can be seen at CPSC.


Model Numbers
Serial Numbers
















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GM Threatened With Regulatory Investigation Before Issuing Recall For Fire-Prone Hummers

July 14, 2015

Last week, General Motors announced that it would recall nearly 196,000 Hummer vehicles because simply turning on the heating or cooling system could set the car ablaze.While we reported that federal regulators had received nearly two dozen consumer complaints about the issue over the past seven years, a new report finds that the real number of reported incidents is much higher, and that GM may have continued to put off issuing the recall had it not been for threats of an investigation.

Jalopnik, citing sources with the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, reported earlier today that General Motors only recalled the model year 2006 to 2010 Hummer H3 and model year 2009 to 2010 H3T after regulators threatened to open a formal investigation into the issue.

According to GM, the issue with the Hummer vehicles is related to an electrical part in the heating and cooling system that can overheat and cause a fire inside the dashboard.

Jalopnik reports that the first fire related to the blower issue occurred in August 2008 and was reported to NHTSA the following month.

However, a chronology report [PDF] posted by NHTSA at the time of the recall alleges the company only learned about the issue after receiving two consumer complaints through its Speak Up For Safety program in September 2014.


Hearth & Home Technologies Recalls Gas Fireplaces

Corner FireplaceDescription

This recall involves Heat-N-Glo® and Heatilator® Corner Unit Series indoor gas fireplaces. The fireplaces are LP or NG-fueled corner units with tempered glass fronts. The following model numbers are printed on the unit rating plate, located near the controls used to operate the units, and in the instruction manual.



 See the full details at CPSC

Cooper Lighting Recalls Fluorescent Lighting Fixtures


This recall involves indoor 2-light fluorescent light fixtures that range in size from 18 inches to 4 feet long. The fixtures were sold in white and can be mounted from heights between 8 and 12 feet. A date code between 182 11 (July 1, 2011) and 090 15 (March 31, 2015) is affixed to the fixture near the ballast in a DDD YY format. Catalogue and model numbers are located on the second line of a label affixed to the inside of the fixture. Catalogue and model numbers included in the recall: DLE217RLP, DLE217RLPB, DLE 232RLP, DLE232RLPB, SL232R, SL232R/1, SL232RPC, SL232RTP, SLNR232R, SLNR232R/1, SLNR232RCHR, SLW232R, SLW232R/1, SNF115R, SNF117R, SNF125R, SNF217R, SSF217R, WP217R, WP217RNKLLU, WP232R, WP232RLU, WP232RNKL, WP232RNKLLU and WP232RNKLRL.


Click here for full details from CPSC.

Code or standard?

What's the difference between a code and a standard?
Michael Heinsdorf, PE, LEED AP, CDT, ARCOM

Almost every consulting engineer works with codes and standards on a daily basis, but do you know the difference between a code and a standard?

According to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Circular No. A-119, Revised, a standard is "[t]he definition of terms; classification of components; delineation of procedures; specification of dimensions, materials, performance, designs, or operations; measurement of quality and quantity in describing materials, processes, products, systems, services, or practices; test methods and sampling procedures; or descriptions of fit and measurements of size or strength." In plain English, a standard consists of technical definitions, procedures, and/or guidelines that specify minimum requirements or instructions for manufacturers, installers, and users of equipment. This can be done by specifying either the methods or the results; the latter is known as "performance specifying." Most importantly, a standard provides standardization or agreement within the industry, which translates to a common reference among engineers, manufacturers, and bidders.



White Paper: Revisiting Flammable Refrigerants

Since the 1989 Montreal Protocol and its successor agreements, the world of
refrigerants has been marked by change. In the search for more environmentally-
preferable refrigerants, technology has moved from chlorofluorocarbons
to a host of alternative substances. Many of these substances are serving as
interim measures, until the phase-out of ozone-depleting and global-warming
refrigerants meets the targets set by the U.S. Clean Air Act. The journey toward
compliance has caused the HVAC equipment and appliance industries to revisit the
potential use of substances that have good environmental and thermodynamic
properties as refrigerants, but which are also, unfortunately, flammable.


Since the 1989 Montreal Protocol and its successor agreements, the world of refrigerants has been marked by change. In the search for more environmentally-preferable refrigerants, technology has moved from chlorofluorocarbons to a host of alternative substances. Many of these substances are serving as interim measures, until the phase-out of ozone-depleting and global-warming refrigerants meets the targets set by the U.S. Clean Air Act. The journey toward compliance has caused the HVAC equipment and appliance industries to revisit the potential use of substances that have good environmental and thermodynamic properties as refrigerants, but which are also, unfortunately, flammable.

Read more... 

More Articles...

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