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Abstract Candles can enhance décor or be a source of light. However, they can also start fires. National estimates of reported fires derived from the U.S. Fire Administration’s National Fire Incident Reporting System (NFIRS) and NFPA’s annual fire department experience survey show that candles were the heat source in an estimated average of 9,300 reported home fires annually during 2009-2013. These fires caused an average of 86 civilian deaths, 827 civilian injuries and $374 million in direct property damage per year. More than one-third (36%) of home candle fires started in the bedroom. Almost three of every five (58%) fires occurred because the candle was too close to something that could burn. Candle fires are most common around the winter holidays. Candles used for light in the absence of electrical power appear to pose a particular risk of fatal fire. Home candle fires climbed through the 1990s but have fallen since the 2001 peak. ASTM F15.45 has developed a number of standards relating to candle fire safety. Despite the considerable progress made in reducing candle fires, they are still a problem. In 2009-2013, candle fires ranked second among the major causes in injuries per thousand fires and average loss per fire. Efforts to prevent these fires must continue.

Abstract

Candles can enhance décor or be a source of light.  However, they can also start fires.  National estimates of reported fires derived from the U.S. Fire Administration’s National Fire Incident Reporting System (NFIRS) and NFPA’s annual fire department experience survey show that candles were the heat source in an estimated average of 9,300 reported home fires annually during 2009-2013.  These fires caused an average of 86 civilian deaths, 827 civilian injuries and $374 million in direct property damage per year.  More than one-third (36%) of home candle fires started in the bedroom.  Almost three of every five (58%) fires occurred because the candle was too close to something that could burn.  Candle fires are most common around the winter holidays.  Candles used for light in the absence of electrical power appear to pose a particular risk of fatal fire.  Home candle fires climbed through the 1990s but have fallen since the 2001 peak.  ASTM F15.45 has developed a number of standards relating to candle fire safety.  Despite the considerable progress made in reducing candle fires, they are still a problem.  In 2009-2013, candle fires ranked second among the major causes in injuries per thousand fires and average loss per fire.  Efforts to prevent these fires must continue.

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Abstract

Upholstered furniture has long been the leading item first ignited in terms of home fire deaths. Based on data from the U.S. Fire Administration’s (USFA’s) National Fire Incident Reporting System (NFIRS) and the National Fire Protection Association’s (NFPA’s) annual fire department experience survey, NFPA estimates that during 2010-2014, upholstered furniture was the item first ignited in an average of 5,630 reported home structure fires per year. (Homes include one- and two-family homes, apartments or other multiple family homes, and manufactured housing.) These fires caused an estimated annual average of 440 civilian deaths, 700 civilian injuries, and $269 million in direct property damage. Overall, fires beginning with upholstered furniture accounted for 2% of reported home fires but 18% of home fire deaths. Smoking materials remain the leading cause of these fires and associated losses.

 

 

NFPA Research

Abstract

Upholstered furniture has long been the leading item first ignited in terms of home fire deaths.  Based on data from the U.S. Fire Administration’s (USFA’s) National Fire Incident Reporting System (NFIRS) and the National Fire Protection Association’s (NFPA’s) annual fire department experience survey, NFPA estimates that during 2010-2014, upholstered furniture was the item first ignited in an average of 5,630 reported home structure fires per year.  (Homes include one- and two-family homes, apartments or other multiple family homes, and manufactured housing.)  These fires caused an estimated annual average of 440 civilian deaths, 700 civilian injuries, and $269 million in direct property damage.  Overall, fires beginning with upholstered furniture accounted for 2% of reported home fires but 18% of home fire deaths.  Smoking materials remain the leading cause of these fires and associated losses.

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Fact Sheet

Automotive Battery Explosions By Charles C. Roberts, Jr., Ph.D., P.E.

As shown in Figure 1, the typical automotive battery, of lead/acid construction, is an electrochemical container that produces voltage, which causes electrical current to flow to various components in an automotive vehicle. An outer polymer case (high density polypropylene) acts as a container for an electrolyte (sulfuric acid), six cells and lead plates. Each cell delivers 2.1 volts with a total voltage of 12.6 volts, at full charge.  Vents are installed at the top of the battery to vent gasses formed during the normal charging cycles.

Figure 1

During the charging cycle, hydrogen gas is generated and accumulates in the head space above the electrolyte level, prior to venting. Hydrogen gas has a wide range of explosive limits in air, ranging from 4 to 72% hydrogen in air and is easily ignited by a flame or spark. If the hydrogen is ignited inside the battery, it typically blows off the top of the battery case, showering sulfuric acid in the immediate vicinity along with fragments of the battery case. The explosive energy generation is so rapid that the vents cannot relieve the pressure in time to prevent an explosion.

Figure 2 is a view of a two year old battery that exploded, causing personal injury from acid burns. This occurred when a standby generator was starting during its normal maintenance test cycle. The top of the battery was blown away, suggesting that hydrogen was ignited inside the battery.  Figure 3 is a view of a battery fragment that was found imbedded in the ceiling of the building that enclosed the generator.

Figure 2

Figure 3

Figure 4

Inspection of the battery shown in Figure 2 revealed that one of the intercell connectors (Figure 4) was loose and corroded. A loose connection inside a battery can result in an electrical arc jumping across the gap, igniting the hydrogen.  In this case, the loose connection was determined to be a result of a manufacturing defect.

Other internal explosive ignition conditions may exist that are not related to a manufacturing defect:

  • A conductive bridge may be formed between two plates as a result of low electrolyte levels. When a high current demand is placed on the battery, it can arc, igniting hydrogen gas and initiating an explosion. This is a result of improper battery maintenance where the electrolyte level should be monitored periodically and lost electrolyte replaced.  Maintenance free batteries have a hydrometer that measures the specific gravity of the electrolyte (an indicator of the concentration of the electrolyte and hence, the electrolyte level) and indicates whether or not a battery should be replaced.
  • External ignition sources often manifest themselves in the form of loose battery cable connections or a poor connection with battery charger clamps that generate an electrical arc. Jump starting vehicles with dead batteries can result in electrical arcs at the dead battery terminals if the last set of clamps is attached to the dead battery. Recommended procedure is to attach the jumper clamps to the dead battery first and then to the live battery.
  • Battery explosions have occurred as a result of tools being placed between the battery terminals. Some individuals test a battery by placing a screw driver across the terminals to see if an arc jumps, revealing whether the battery is supplying electrical energy or not. This can result in a battery explosion since the current through the screw driver is not regulated, can be very high and generate an electrical arc, causing an internal or external explosion.
  • Corrosion, which can cause electrical resistance and a possible arc ignition source, may develop at battery terminals as shown in Figure 5, which also illustrates a loose or improperly secured battery clamp.

Figure 5

As in most investigations, retention of the evidence is desirable if subrogation is anticipated. In battery explosion losses, fragments may be found scattered throughout the scene and imbedded in the building structure. Collecting these pieces helps the technical analyst determine the cause of the explosion. It is encouraged to have the battery analyzed in a timely manner to reduce the effect of corrosion, which can obscure evidence.

From Out of the Abyss...

This week’s article from the past is titled Incendiary Fires Can Be Spotted and was written by Benjamin Horton, CPCU, who was President of the National Adjuster Traing School in Louisville, Kentucky..  It is taken from the Decembe 1968 Vol. XVI No.5 issue.

Incendiary Fires Can Be Spotted 

In the new issue of NFPA Journal®, President Jim Shannon said the Association will focus on the leading causes of home fires, including cooking. "We also need to continue to push hard for home fire sprinklers. That's still a large priority for NFPA, and we plan to work very aggressively in 2014 on our residential sprinkler initiative," he said.

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NFPA 921, Guide for Fire and Explosion Investigations plays a fundamental role in fire and explosion investigations. A new edition of NFPA 921 is scheduled to be published in 2014. For years, this document has played a critical role in the training, education and job performance of fire and explosion investigators. It also serves as one of the primary references used by the National Fire Academy to support its fire/arson-related training and education programs. It is imperative that investigators understand the scope, purpose and application of this document, especially since it will be used to judge the quality and thoroughness of their investigations.

NFPA 921, Guide for Fire and Explosion Investigations plays a fundamental role in fire and explosion investigations. A new edition of NFPA 921 is scheduled to be published in 2014. For years, this document has played a critical role in the training, education and job performance of fire and explosion investigators. It also serves as one of the primary references used by the National Fire Academy to support its fire/arson-related training and education programs. It is imperative that investigators understand the scope, purpose and application of this document, especially since it will be used to judge the quality and thoroughness of their investigations.

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Flashover Fires in Small Residential Units with an Open Kitchen

ABSTRACT
The open kitchen design in small residential units where fire load density and occupant
load are very high introduces additional fire risk. One big concern is that whether
flash-over can occur which may trigger a big post flashover fire, resulting in severe
casualties and big property damage. It is important to understand and predict the
critical conditions for flashover in this kind of units. Based on a two-layer zone model,
the probability of flashover is investigated by a nonlinear dynamical model. The
temperature of the smoke layer is taken as the only state variable and the evolution
equation is developed in the form of a simplified energy balance equation for the hot
smoke layer. Flashover is considered to occur at bifurcation points. Then the influence
of the floor dimensions and the radiation feedback coefficient on flashover conditions
is examined. When the dimensions of the floor vary, the resulting changes in internal
surface area or size of floor area both have effect on the flashover conditions. When the
radiation feedback coefficient is of small value, there is no possibility of flashover.
With the increase of the radiation feedback coefficient, at first it significantly affects
the conditions for flashover and then moderately when it reaches a larger value. It is
proved that the flashover phenomenon can be demonstrated well by nonlinear
dynamical system and it helps to understand the effect of various control parameters.

Abstract

The open kitchen design in small residential units where fire load density and occupant load are very high introduces additional fire risk. One big concern is that whether flash-over can occur which may trigger a big post flashover fire, resulting in severe casualties and big property damage. It is important to understand and predict the critical conditions for flashover in this kind of units. Based on a two-layer zone model, the probability of flashover is investigated by a nonlinear dynamical model. The temperature of the smoke layer is taken as the only state variable and the evolution equation is developed in the form of a simplified energy balance equation for the hot smoke layer. Flashover is considered to occur at bifurcation points. Then the influence of the floor dimensions and the radiation feedback coefficient on flashover conditions is examined. When the dimensions of the floor vary, the resulting changes in internal surface area or size of floor area both have effect on the flashover conditions. When the radiation feedback coefficient is of small value, there is no possibility of flashover.  With the increase of the radiation feedback coefficient, at first it significantly affects the conditions for flashover and then moderately when it reaches a larger value. It is proved that the flashover phenomenon can be demonstrated well by nonlinear dynamical system and it helps to understand the effect of various control parameters.

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Measurements of Heat and Combustion Products in Reduced-Scale Ventilation-Limited Compartment Fires

1 Introduction
A series of new reduced-scale compartment fire experiments were conducted, which included
local measurements of temperature and species composition. The measurements are unique to
the compartment fire literature. By design, the experiments provided a comprehensive and
quantitative assessment of major and minor carbonaceous gaseous species and soot at two
locations in the upper layer of fire in a 2/5 scale International Organization for Standards (ISO)
9705 room. The enclosure defined in the international standard ISO 9705 “Full-scale room test
for surface products” [1] is an important structure in which to conduct fire research. Many
dozens of research projects and journal articles have focused on this enclosure and the standard
describing its use. It is a common reference point for studies of many fire-related phenomena as
well as fire modeling efforts.

Introduction

A series of new reduced-scale compartment fire experiments were conducted, which includedlocal measurements of temperature and species composition. The measurements are unique tothe compartment fire literature. By design, the experiments provided a comprehensive andquantitative assessment of major and minor carbonaceous gaseous species and soot at twolocations in the upper layer of fire in a 2/5 scale International Organization for Standards (ISO)9705 room. The enclosure defined in the international standard ISO 9705 “Full-scale room testfor surface products” [1] is an important structure in which to conduct fire research. Manydozens of research projects and journal articles have focused on this enclosure and the standarddescribing its use. It is a common reference point for studies of many fire-related phenomena aswell as fire modeling efforts.

Read more... 

Fremont Insurance Company and Steve and Diane Foley v. Gro-Green Farms, Inc.

FREMONT INSURANCE COMPANY, Plaintiff-Appellant/Cross-Appellee, and
STEVE FOLEY and DIANE FOLEY, d/b/a RAINBOW CREEK FARMS, Appellants/Cross-Appellees,
v.
GRO-GREEN FARMS, INC., Defendant-Appellee/Cross-Appellant.
Court of Appeals of Michigan.
March 17, 2016

Before: K. F. KELLY, P.J., and FORT HOOD and BORRELLO, JJ.

UNPUBLISHED
PER CURIAM.

Plaintiffs appeal as of right from orders of the trial court granting defendant's motion for summary disposition and motion in limine. On appeal, plaintiffs argue that the trial court erred in granting defendant's summary disposition on plaintiffs' tort claims on the basis of the economic loss doctrine, erred in granting defendant's motion for summary disposition on the basis that plaintiffs failed to provide defendant with reasonable notice pursuant to MCL 440.2607(3)(a), and erred in granting defendant's motion in limine and prohibiting evidence relating to "clinkers." Defendant cross appeals as of right, asserting alternative grounds for affirmance of its motion for summary disposition and motion in limine, and disputing the trial court's denial of its motion to amend its witness list. We affirm in part, reverse in part, and remand for further proceedings consistent with this opinion.

 You can access the full article in the members only section


Incendiary Fires Can Be Spotted

From Out of the Abyss...

This week’s article from the past is titled Incendiary Fires Can Be Spotted and was written by Benjamin Horton, CPCU, who was President of the National Adjuster Traing School in Louisville, Kentucky..  It is taken from the Decembe 1968 Vol. XVI No.5 issue.

Incendiary Fires Can Be Spotted 

Protection Against Ignitions Arising Out of Static, Lightning and Stray Currents.

This week's "From Out of the Abyss" article was found in the March 1957, Vol. III-No.3, issue of the CCAI Newsletter.  It is 14 pages long and took up the majority of the newsletter.

More Articles...

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